J Am Coll Nutr 2004,
Rowe, William J
Cardiovascular (CV) complications, associated with space flight (SF), are caused by microgravity, hypokinesia and radiation, particularly beyond earth orbit, with all three conducive to oxidative stress. Except for emergencies, pharmaceuticals appear to be contraindicated, because of unpredictable side effects from malabsorption (M) and potential hepatic and renal impairment. Magnesium (Mg) depletion and elevations of cytokines (interleukin 6) occur during SF, conducive to self-sustaining vascular inflammation mechanisms. There are potential endothelial injuries (EI) and reduced Cyclic GMP (a second messenger of nitric oxide: NO) and elevated urinary excretion of C-peptide (insulin resistance: IR). Recent findings that show reductions in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suggest that this may result from SF-related thrombocytopenia since platelets (P) are the major source of VEGF, and that NO might play a role. Both VEGF and Mg are vital for angiogenesis, endothelial function and reendothelialization. Insulin is necessary for VEGF expression. To prevent SF-related CV complications in the presence of IR and M and with the potential for renal insufficiency, closely monitored subcutaneous (SC) Mg should be provided. The dosage can be monitored by sublingual intracellular Mg assays. Needed is development of a SC Mg reservoir device, which can be replenished before extra-vehicular activities (EVA) and which must be reliable despite vigorous movements during EVA, that can last up to 8 hours. This could also be protective against decompression sickness and EVA-related 100% oxygen requirements before and during this activity, both of which predispost to EI.
Diseases/Pathways annotated by Medline MESH:
Cardiovascular Diseases, Hypokinesia, Magnesium Deficiency
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Text Mining Data
VEGF → Insulin: " Insulin
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No curated data.