J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007,
Luo, Yi; Dixon, C Jane; Hall, John F; White, Pamela J; Boarder, Michael R
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of cell cycle progression in cultured primary hepatocytes has previously been reported to be dependent on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) elements of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade and not the Akt pathway. Here we have established conditions of combined treatment of rat hepatocytes with insulin and EGF that favor cell cycle progression. The resulting cell population expresses albumin and retains receptor regulation of the signaling pathways leading to glycogen phosphorylase activation. We then investigated the hypothesis that the Akt limb of the PI3K pathway plays a central role in this insulin/EGF enhancement of cell cycle progression. The phosphorylation of Akt, central to the PI3K pathway, was increased by both insulin (sustained) and EGF (transient). The stimulation of Akt phosphorylation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the PI3K inhibitor, 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (LY294002). Cell cycle progression in these cultures was reduced, but not abolished, by this inhibitor. The mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, also inhibited entry into S phase. The novel Akt inhibitor A-443654 [(S)-1-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-2-[5-(3-methyl-1H-indazol-5-yl)-pyridin-3-yloxy]-ethylamine] blocked both EGF-stimulated cell cycle progression and phosphorylation of the Akt substrate glycogen synthase kinase-3. Infection of cells with an adenoviral vector expressing a constitutively active form of Akt but not a kinase-dead form increased hepatocyte proliferation probably through enhanced cell cycle progression and reduced apoptosis. These results show that the Akt element of the PI3K cascade is necessary for EGF-stimulated cell cycle progression and provide evidence that the sustained elevation of Akt alone generates a hyperproliferative window in hepatocyte cultures.
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Text Mining Data
Akt → EGF: " The phosphorylation of Akt
, central to the PI3K pathway, was increased
by both insulin ( sustained ) and EGF
( transient ) "
Akt → insulin: " The phosphorylation of Akt , central to the PI3K pathway, was increased by both insulin ( sustained ) and EGF ( transient ) "
Akt → PI3K: " The stimulation of Akt phosphorylation was inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by the PI3K inhibitor, 2- ( 4-morpholinyl ) -8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one ( LY294002 ) "
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