Cell Signal 2011,
Edelstein, Jacob; Hao, Tianfeng; Cao, Qin; Morales, Leon; Rockwell, Patricia
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchRs) are guanosine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors that crosstalk with receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) to signal mitogenic pathways. In particular, mAchRs are known to couple with RTKs for several growth factors to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/Akt pathway, a regulator of protein synthesis. The RTK for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGFR2, can signal protein synthesis but whether it cooperates with mAchRs to mediate mTOR activation has not been demonstrated. Using serum starved SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells, we show that the muscarinic receptor agonists carbachol and pilocarpine enhance the activation of the mTOR substrate p70 S6 Kinase (S6K) and its target ribosomal protein S6 (S6) in a VEGFR2 dependent manner. Treatments with carbachol increased VEGFR2 phosphorylation, suggesting that mAchRs stimulate VEGFR2 transactivation to enhance mTOR signaling. Inhibitor studies revealed that phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase resides upstream from S6K, S6 and Akt phosphorylation while protein kinase C (PKC) functions in an opposing fashion by positively regulating S6K and S6 phosphorylation and suppressing Akt activation. Treatments with the phosphatase inhibitors sodium orthovanadate and okadaic acid increase S6, Akt and to a lesser extent S6K phosphorylation, indicating that tyrosine and serine/threonine dephosphorylation also regulates their activity. However, okadaic acid elicited a far greater increase in phosphorylation, implicating phosphatase 2A as a critical determinant of their function. Finally, pilocarpine but not carbachol induced a time and dose dependent cell death that was associated with caspase activation and oxidative stress but independent of S6K and S6 activation through VEGFR2. Accordingly, our findings suggest that mAchRs crosstalk with VEGFR2 to enhance mTOR activity but signal divergent effects on survival through alternate mechanisms.
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Text Mining Data
mTOR → vascular endothelial growth factor: " The RTK for the vascular endothelial growth factor
( VEGF ), VEGFR2, can signal protein synthesis but whether it cooperates with mAchRs to mediate mTOR
activation has not been demonstrated "
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No curated data.