Note: Includes annotations on GRCh38.p12 patch sequences
The chromosome band track represents the approximate
location of bands seen on Giemsa-stained chromosomes.
Chromosomes are displayed in the browser with the short arm first.
Cytologically identified bands on the chromosome are numbered outward
from the centromere on the short (p) and long (q) arms. At low resolution,
bands are classified using the nomenclature
[chromosome][arm][band], where band is a
single digit. Examples of bands on chromosome 3 include 3p2, 3p1, cen, 3q1,
and 3q2. At a finer resolution, some of the bands are subdivided into
sub-bands, adding a second digit to the band number, e.g. 3p26. This
resolution produces about 500 bands. A final subdivision into a
total of 862 sub-bands is made by adding a period and another digit to the
band, resulting in 3p26.3, 3p26.2, etc.
A full description of the method by which the chromosome band locations are
estimated can be found in Furey and Haussler, 2003.
Barbara Trask, Vivian Cheung, Norma Nowak and others in the BAC Resource
Consortium used fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) to determine a
cytogenetic location for large genomic clones on the chromosomes.
The results from these experiments are the primary source of information used
in estimating the chromosome band locations.
For more information about the process, see the paper, Cheung,
et al., 2001. and the accompanying web site,
Human BAC Resource.
BAC clone placements in the human sequence are determined at UCSC using a
combination of full BAC clone sequence, BAC end sequence, and STS marker
We would like to thank all the labs that have contributed to this resource:
Cheung VG, Nowak N, Jang W, Kirsch IR, Zhao S, Chen XN, Furey TS, Kim UJ, Kuo WL, Olivier M et
Integration of cytogenetic landmarks into the draft sequence of the human genome.
Nature. 2001 Feb 15;409(6822):953-8.
Furey TS, Haussler D.
Integration of the cytogenetic map with the draft human genome sequence.
Hum Mol Genet. 2003 May 1;12(9):1037-44.